Cosmos [8] is a blockchain ecosystem that offers inter-chain interoperability via the IBC (Inter-Blockchain Communica- tion Protocol), organized around a structure of Hubs and Zones. The Cosmos Hub oversees communication between independent chains, referred to as Zones. Currently, Cosmos Zones need to establish their own security by initializing their distinct validator set and staking tokens for crypto-economic security. Given that the Hub possesses the largest pool of staked tokens, and consequently the highest level of security, the Cosmos ecosystem is developing a novel mechanism named Replicated Security [1] to allow newly formulated chains, upon receiving governance approval, to be operated by all of the Hub’s validators, thus inheriting the Hub’s security. Another emerging feature, named Mesh Security [17], seeks to bolster the security of current Cosmos chains by enabling the delegation of one chain’s tokens to the validators of another chain. Compared to Cosmos’ Replicated Security, Exocore’s restaking support for app chains allows flexible opt-in from validators and stakers to choose which chains to support. Moreover, in comparison to Cosmos’ Mesh Staking, Exocore’s union restaking delivers heightened security at a reduced expense for a variety of off-chain AVSs.

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